Archive for the ‘Tugas Kuliah’ Category

Toefl Skill

Posted: April 11, 2012 in Bahasa Inggris Bisnis, Tugas Kuliah

1. Subject and Verbs

You know that a sentence in English should have a subject and a verb. The most common types of problems that you will encounter in the Structure section of the TOEFL test are related to subjects and verbs; perhaps the sentence is missing either the subject, or the verb, or both; perhaps the sentence has an extra subject or verb.

Example I

______was ringing continuously for hours.

(A) Loudly
(B) In the morning
(C) The phone
(D) The bells

Analysis:

In this example, you should notice immediately that there is a verb, was ringing, but there is no subject. Answer (C) is the best answer because it is a singular subject that agrees with the singular verb was ringing. Answer (A), loudly, and answer (B), in the morning, are not subjects, so they are not correct. Although answer (D), bells, could be a subject, it is not correct because bells is plural and it does not agree with the singular verb was ringing.

Example II

Newspapers _______ every morning and every evening.

(A) delivery
(B) are delivered
(C) on time
(D) regularly

Analysis:

In this example, you should notice immediately that the sentence has a subject, newspapers, but that there is no verb. Because answer (B), are delivered, is a verb, it is the best answer. Answers (A), (C), and (D) are not verbs, so they are not correct.

Example III

The plane __________ landing at the airport in five minutes.

(A) it is
(B) it really is
(C) is descending
(D) will be

Analysis:

This sentence has a subject, plane, and has part of a verb, landing; to be correct, some form of the verb be is needed to make the verb complete. Answers (A) and (B) are incorrect because the sentence already has a subject, plane, and does not need the extra subject it. Answer (C) is incorrect because descending is an extra part of a verb that is unnecessary because of landing. Answer (D) is the best answer; will be together with landing is a complete verb.

(lebih…)

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1. Passive voice negatif

  • Don’t wait for me
  • You are advised not to wait for me
  • The car wasn’t driven by Adi yesterday
  • The books weren’t borrowed by my friends
  • The Project were not worked by them this year
  • The motorcycle wasn’t driven by Yayan yesterday
  • The car is not driven by him
  • The test is not written by her
  • I was not invited by her
  • The poem isn’t wrote by him

2. Kalimat tanya

  • Will you bring your book?
  • Did she pass the test?
  • Should I telephone you or send an email?
  • Do you want bear, wine, or wisky?
  • He is working, isn’t he?
  • He didn’t come, did he?
  • She types accurately, doesn’t she?
  • There isn’t any news, is there?
  • He has a lot of money, hasn’t he?
  • He likes football, doesn’t he?

 

 

IF Clause

IF Clause Type 1
if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.
Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.
Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.
Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.
Exercises on Conditional Sentences Type 1
Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to party, but nobody’s really keen on preparing and organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure that the others will also do something.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
1. If Caroline and Sue the salad, Phil the house.
2. If Sue the onions for the salad, Caroline the mushrooms.
3. Jane the sitting room if Aaron and Tim the furniture.
4. If Bob up the kitchen, Anita the toilet.
5. Elaine the drinks if somebody her carry the bottles. 

Exercises on Conditional Sentences Type 1
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type I) by putting the verbs into the correct form.
1. If you (send) this letter now, she (receive) it tomorrow.
2. If I (do) this test, I (improve) my English.
3. If I (find) your ring, I (give) it back to you.
4. Peggy (go) shopping if she (have) time in the afternoon.
5. Simon (go) to London next week if he (get) a cheap flight.

IF Clause Type 2
if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.
Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.
Were instead of Was
In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.
Example: If I were you, I would not do this.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don’t really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if …“
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.
Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he doesn’t have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 2
Janine is a daydreamer. She imagines what would happen if she won the lottery.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.
1. If I the lottery, I a chance to hit the jackpot.
2. If I the jackpot, I rich.
3. If I rich, my life completely.
4. I a lonely island, if I a nice one.
5. If I a lonely island, I a huge house by the beach.

Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 2
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type II) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional I with would in the main clause.
1. If we (have) a yacht, we (sail) the seven seas.
2. If he (have) more time, he (learn) karate.
3. If they (tell) their father, he (be) very angry.
4. She (spend) a year in the USA if it (be) easier to get a green card.
5. If I (live) on a lonely island, I (run) around naked all day.  (lebih…)

Conditional (Kalimat Pengandaian) menjelaskan bahwa sebuah kegiatan bertentangan dengan kegiatan yang lain. Conditional yang paling umum adalahReal Conditonal dan Unreal Conditonal, kadang-kadang disebut juga if-clauses.

Real Conditional (sering juga disebut juga dengan Conditional Tipe I) yang menggambarkan tentang mengandai-andai sesuai dengan fakta.

Unreal Conditional (sering juga disebut sebagai Conditional Tipe II) yang menggambarkan tentang pengandaian yang tidak nyata atau berimajinasi.

Ada juga Conditional yang ke-3 yang sering disebut dengan Conditional Tipe III, digunakan sebagai penyesalan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan zero conditional, digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang sudah pasti benar.

Catatan: Jika  klausa “if” diletakkan di awal kalimat, kita harus menggunakan “koma”. Sebaliknya jika klausa “if” berada di belakang, maka tidak perlu ada koma

Zero Conditional

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan kebenaran umum. Tense yang digunakan biasanya Present Simple Tense (lebih…)

Intransitive verb adalah kata kerja yang tidak memerlukan objek atau pelengkap penderita. 

Contoh :

  • Cows walk. Sapi-sapi berjalan
  • Horses run. Kuda-kuda berlari
  • Birds fly. Burung-burung terbang

a. Kata kerja intransitif yang mana saja, yang membuat  pengertian lengkap dengan sendirinya, dan tidak memerlukan kata atau kata-kata apa saja untuk ditambahkan padanya untuk maksud ini, disebut intransitive verbs of complete predication.

Contoh:

  • Cows walk,
  • horses run, dsb.

b.Intransitive verb with complement (kata kerja intransitif dengan komplemen)

Kata-kata kerja intransitif yang tidak membuat pengertian yang lengkap dengan sendirinya, tetapi memerlukan komplemen, disebut intransitive verbs of incomplete predication.

Komplemen untuk kata kerja intransitif dalam bentuk yang sama jenisnya seperti komplemen untuk kata kerja transitif. (lebih…)

Transitive Verb

Posted: November 7, 2011 in Bahasa Inggris Bisnis, Tugas Kuliah

Transitive Verb

adalah kata kerja yang membutuhkan objek atau pelengkap penderita 
Contoh: 
He killed a snake. Ia membunuh seekor ular

  • Forms of the object (bentuk-bentuk objek)

Kebanyakan kata kerja transitif memerlukan satu buah objek saja. Objek untuk kata kerja boleh dinyatakan dalam berbagai bentuk yang berbeda, antara lain:

  • Noun (kata benda)

Contoh: 
He killed a snake. Ia membunuh seekor ular

  • Pronoun (kata ganti)

Contoh: 
That snake bit her. Ular itu menggigitnya

  • Infinitive (infinitif)

Contoh: He desires to success. Ia menginginkan sukses

  • Gerund (kata kerja yang dibendakan)

Contoh: 
He disliked hunting. Ia tak suka berburu

  • Phrase (ungkapan)

Contoh: 
She doesn’t know how to make things go. 
Ia tidak tahu bagaimana membuat segala sesuatu berjalan dengan baik

  • Clause (anak kalimat)

Contoh: 
We don’t know what she wants. Kami tidak tahu apa yang dikehendakinya

  • The double object (objek ganda)

Beberapa kata kerja transitif memerlukan dua buah objek setelah kata-kata kerja itu, yang satu di antaranya biasanya adalah nama benda tertentu, dan yang lain merupakan orang atau hewan lain tertentu.

Benda yang dikatakan itu disebut direct object (pelengkap penderita langsung), orang atau hewan lain yang dikatakan itu disebut indirect object (pelengkap penderita tak langsung).

Beberapa kata kerja transitif, misalnya give, bring, buy, send, tell, dsb, harus mempunyai dua buah objek yang dinyatakan direct object (objek langsung) dan indirect object (objek tak langsung).

Contoh:

  • They give the boy a book. Ia memberi anak laki-laki itu sebuah buku
  • the boy = indirect object
  • a book = direct object

atau

  • They gave a book to the boy. Ia memberi sebuah buku kepada anak laki-laki itu

a book = direct object 
the boy = indirect object

Catatan: 
Cara lain membedakan dua buah objek itu dengan memperhatikan bahwa indirect object itu selalu berada di tempat yang pertama sesudah kata kerja transitif. 
Kalau indirect object itu diletakkan sesudah direct object itu, indirect object harus didahului oleh kata depan “for” atau “to”. (lebih…)

Passive Voice

Posted: November 2, 2011 in Bahasa Inggris Bisnis, Tugas Kuliah

Kalimat aktif merupakan kalimat yang subjek kalimatnya adalah pelaku sebuah tindakan, sedangkan kalimat pasif adalah kalimat yang subjeknya bukan pelaku suatu tindakan. Si subjek adalah si penerima akibat dari sebuah tindakan.

Bandingkan kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  • Aktif : Susi mengetik surat ini kemarin
  • Pasif : Surat ini diketik oleh Susi kemarin
  • Aktif : Kucingku membunuh seekor tikus
  • Pasif : Seekor tikus dibunuh oleh kucingku

Catatan:
Gunakan bentuk pasif jika pelaku tindakan tidak begitu penting.

Contoh:

  • Menara ini dibangun tahun 1955

Kalau kita perlu menyebut siapa pelaku suatu tindakan, gunakan kata oleh (by)

Contoh:

  • Menara ini telah dibangun oleh Pemerintah Daerah pada tahun 1955

Rumus umum untuk membentuk suatu kalimat Pasif

  • Aktif : S + Verb (Kata Kerja) + Objek + dll
  • Pasif : Objek + to be + Verb 3 (Kata Kerja Bentuk III) ( + by subjek) + dll

To be yang digunakan

  1. Present : is, am, are
  2. Past : was, were
  3. Perfect : been (di depan have, has, atau had)
  4. Future : be (setelah modals)
  5. Continuous : being (di depan salah satu dari 7 to be di atas)

Hal-hal yang perlu diketahui dan diingat

  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kalimat dalam bentuk pasif, tenses tidak berubah. Tenses harus sama dengan kalau kita menyatakannya dalam bentuk aktif. Yang berubah hanya kata kerja-nya.
  2. Kata kerja yang tidak memiliki objek (Kata Kerja Intransitif) tidak dapat diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, seperti, menangis, mendidih, terbit, dll. (lebih…)