If clause dan Wish

Posted: November 8, 2011 in Bahasa Inggris Bisnis, Tugas Kuliah

IF Clause

IF Clause Type 1
if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.
Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.
Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.
Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.
Exercises on Conditional Sentences Type 1
Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to party, but nobody’s really keen on preparing and organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure that the others will also do something.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
1. If Caroline and Sue the salad, Phil the house.
2. If Sue the onions for the salad, Caroline the mushrooms.
3. Jane the sitting room if Aaron and Tim the furniture.
4. If Bob up the kitchen, Anita the toilet.
5. Elaine the drinks if somebody her carry the bottles. 

Exercises on Conditional Sentences Type 1
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type I) by putting the verbs into the correct form.
1. If you (send) this letter now, she (receive) it tomorrow.
2. If I (do) this test, I (improve) my English.
3. If I (find) your ring, I (give) it back to you.
4. Peggy (go) shopping if she (have) time in the afternoon.
5. Simon (go) to London next week if he (get) a cheap flight.

IF Clause Type 2
if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.
Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.
Were instead of Was
In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.
Example: If I were you, I would not do this.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don’t really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if …“
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.
Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he doesn’t have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 2
Janine is a daydreamer. She imagines what would happen if she won the lottery.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.
1. If I the lottery, I a chance to hit the jackpot.
2. If I the jackpot, I rich.
3. If I rich, my life completely.
4. I a lonely island, if I a nice one.
5. If I a lonely island, I a huge house by the beach.

Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 2
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type II) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional I with would in the main clause.
1. If we (have) a yacht, we (sail) the seven seas.
2. If he (have) more time, he (learn) karate.
3. If they (tell) their father, he (be) very angry.
4. She (spend) a year in the USA if it (be) easier to get a green card.
5. If I (live) on a lonely island, I (run) around naked all day. 

IF Clause Type 3
if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.
Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.
Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional II on how to form negative sentences.
Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.
Use
Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn’t find her address, however. So in the end I didn’t send her an invitation.
Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.
I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.
Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 3
What a match – your favourite team has lost again! So after the game, the supporters discuss what could have been different.
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type III.
1. If the midfielders the ball more exactly, our team more chances to attack.
2. If the forwards faster, they more goals.
3. Their motivation if they a goal during the first half.
4. The fullbacks one or the other goal if they their opponents.
5. If the goalie up, he the ball.

Exercise on Conditional Sentences Type 3
Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type III) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional II with would in the main clause.
1. If you (study) for the test, you (pass) it.
2. If you (ask) me, I (help) you.
3. If we (go) to the cinema, we (see) my friend Jacob.
4. If you (speak) English, she (understand) .
5. If they (listen) to me, we (be) home earlier.

Exceptions for Conditional Sentences
So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it’s possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.
Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.
Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.
Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)
Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)
Exercise on Conditional Sentences with Auxiliaries
Complete the conditional sentences (type I). Remember to use the auxiliary verbs.
1. If it doesn’t rain, we (can / go) swimming tomorrow.
2. If you train hard, you (might / win) first prize.
3. If we go to Canada next year, we (can / improve) our English.
4. I (may / go) to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now.
5. If we go on holiday next week, I (not / can / play) tennis with you.

Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)
Conditional Sentences Type I
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I according to the information in brackets.
1. If we (visit – fact) our grandparents, we always (go – fact) to the restaurant in their street.
2. If my sister (speak – action going on now) on the phone, I (call – future) you later on.
3. You (go / can) outside if you (do – completed action) your homework.
4. If we (get – future action) the loan, our house (build – future action / passive voice) this autumn.
5. I always (ask – fact) my mother if I (know / not – fact) what to do.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)

Conditional Sentences Type II
Study the following situations. In every sentence, the ‘if’ clause expresses a general situation in the present (Type II). Decide, however, whether the consequences refer to the present (Conditional I) or past (Conditional II).
1. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
2. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I’m afraid she is not there because …
If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone.
3. I want to ring a friend now, but I don’t know his phone number.
If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
4. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don’t know his phone number.
If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.
5. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don’t think what she is planning is a good idea.
If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
6. A friend tells me what she did. I don’t think what she did was a good idea.
If I (be) you, I (do / not) this.
7. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I’m seeing her in town tonight.
If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town tonight.
8. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night.
If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town last night.
9. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him …
You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
10. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him …
You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit.
Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses)
Conditional Sentences Type III
Study the following situations. In every sentence, the ‘if’ clause expresses a situation in the past (Type III). Decide, however, whether the consequences refer to the present (Conditional I) or past (Conditional II).
1. It didn’t rain yesterday. So I had to water the plants yesterday.
If it (rain) yesterday, I (water / not) the plants.
2. It didn’t rain yesterday. So I am watering the plants now.
If it (rain) yesterday, I (water / not) the plants now.
3. I went to bed late last night. So I am still tired now.
If I (go) to bed earlier yesterday, I (feel / not) so tired now.
4. I went to bed late last Tuesday. So I was very tired the following day.
If I (go) to bed earlier that Tuesday, I (feel / not) that tired the following day.
5. After a night out, I want to drive home now. I haven’t drunk any alcohol.
If I (drink) alcohol, I (drive / not) .
6. After a night out last weekend, I drove home. I hadn’t drunk any alcohol.
If I (drink) alcohol, I (drive / not) .
7. We won the match last week. So when we came home, we looked really happy.
We (look / not) that happy if we (win / not) the match.
8. We’ve just won a match. So we look really happy now.
We (look / not) that happy if we (win / not) the match.
9. My daughter is blamed for having done something. She tells me now that she didn’t do it. I believe her.
She (tell) me if she (do) it.
10. Last year, my daughter was blamed for having done something. She told me that she hadn’t done it. I believed her.
She (tell) me if she (do) it.
Exercise “The Cat and the Mouse” – Part 1
Complete the conditional sentences (type I, II and III)
1. Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse’s tail off. “Give me back my tail,” said the mouse. And the cat said, “Well, I (give) you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. But that’s impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
2. The mouse, however, went to the cow. “The cat (give / only) me back my tail if I fetch her some milk.”
3. And the cow said, “Well, I would give you milk if you (get) me some hay. But that’s impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
4. The mouse, however, went to the farmer. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) me some milk. And the cow (only / give) me milk if I get her some hay.”
5. And the farmer said, “Well, I would give you hay if you (bring) me some meat. But that’s impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”
6. The mouse, however, went to the butcher. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) me milk. And the cow will only give me milk if she (get) some hay. And the farmer (only / give) me hay if I get him some meat.”
7. And the butcher said, “Well, I would give you meat if you (make) the baker bake me a bread. But that’s impossible to do for a little mouse like you.”

English Test on Conditional Sentences Type 1, 2 and 3
Test your knowledge on Conditional Sentences. After submitting your answers, you will see how well you have done in the test.
Conditional Sentences Type I
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I.
• If you (go) out with your friends tonight, I (watch) the football match on TV.
• I (earn) a lot of money if I (get) that job.
• If she (hurry / not) , we (miss) the bus.
Conditional Sentences Type II
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.
• If he (try) harder, he (reach) his goals.
• I (buy) these shoes if they (fit) .
• It (surprise / not) me if he (know / not) the answer.
Conditional Sentences Type III
Complete the Conditional Sentences Type III.
• If we (listen) to the radio, we (hear) the news.
• If you (switch) on the lights, you (fall / not) over the chair.
• She (come) to our party if she (be / not) on holiday.
Conditional Sentences Type I, II or III
Complete the Conditional Sentences with the correct form (Type I, II or III).
• If I stronger, I’d help you carry the piano.
• If we’d seen you, we .
• If we him tomorrow, we’ll say hello.
• He would have repaired the car himself if he the tools.
• If you drop the vase, it .
• If I hadn’t studied, I the exam.
• I wouldn’t go to school by bus if I a driving licence.
• If she him every day, she’d be lovesick.
• I to London if I don’t get a cheap flight.

WISH

Wish dalam Bahasa Inggris mempunyai beberapa arti dan makna. Di bawah ini akan kami jelaskan secara terperinci tentang jenis-jenis makna dan arti dari “wish”. Semoga penjelasan di bawah ini dapat membantu Anda dalam menggunakan kata “wish” secara baik dan tepat.

Kata wish sama artinya dengan ekspresi “would like”:

  • wish I had a big house = I would like to have a big house.
  • wish I had been there = I would like to have been there.
  • wish you would stop talking = I would like you to stop talking.
  • wish to see the manager = I would like to see the manager.
  • wish you a Merry Christmas = I would like you to have a Merry Christmas.

Fungsi utama dari kata “wish” adalah untuk mengekspresikan penyesalan.

  • I wish (that) I weren’t here now.
  • wish (that) I didn’t have to go to school tomorrow.
  • wish (that) I had studied harder when I was at school.

Tenses yang mengikuti wish sama dengan second dan third conditionals. Kata that dapat dihilangkan dalam percakapan tidak resni.

Ekspresi wish … would digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang keinginan agar orang lain melakukan sesuatu:

  • wish you would tidy your room.
  • wish you wouldn’t always come home so late.

Dalam situasi tidak resmi, wish + (object) + infinitive dapat digunakan seperti pemakaian kata “want”:

  • wish to speak to the director.
  • Do you wish me to serve refreshments, sir?
  • Wish is also used in some fixed expressions:
  • I/we wish you a Merry Christmas (and a Happy New Year).
  • I/we wish you well/all the best.

Sumber :

http://ismailmidi.com/berita-220-wish.html

http://inibapakbudi.blogspot.com/2010/12/if-clause.html

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